Settlements > Thebes (Egypt)

Thebes (Egypt)


Thebes, known as Waset in ancient Egyptian, was one of the most significant cities in ancient Egypt. While Alexander the Great did not directly impact Thebes during his conquests, understanding its history within the context of Alexander's era provides valuable insights into its importance in ancient times.

Early History:

Thebes was founded during the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3100–2686 BCE) and served as the capital of Egypt during the Middle and New Kingdoms (c. 2040–1070 BCE). It was situated on the eastern bank of the Nile River, in Upper Egypt, and was renowned for its temples, palaces, and monuments. During the New Kingdom, Thebes reached its zenith as one of the wealthiest and most powerful cities in the ancient world. It was the religious center of Egypt, dedicated to the worship of Amun-Ra, the king of the gods.

Thebes in the Late Period:

By the time of Alexander the Great's conquests in the 4th century BCE, Egypt had already experienced significant changes. The Achaemenid Persian Empire had conquered Egypt in 525 BCE, ending the New Kingdom era. Thebes remained an important religious and cultural center, although its political influence had diminished under Persian rule.

Alexander's Conquest:

Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt occurred in 332 BCE, when he defeated the Persian ruler, Darius III, at the Battle of Issus. Upon entering Egypt, Alexander was welcomed as a liberator, and the Persian satrap surrendered without resistance. Alexander visited the Oracle of Amun at the Oasis of Siwa, where he was declared the son of Amun and rightful pharaoh of Egypt. This legitimization helped solidify his rule over the country.

Ptolemaic Rule:

Following Alexander's death in 323 BCE, his empire was divided among his generals, with Egypt falling under the control of Ptolemy I Soter. The Ptolemaic dynasty, founded by Ptolemy, established its capital at Alexandria, a new city founded by Alexander. While Thebes retained its religious significance during the Ptolemaic period, much of the political power and administration shifted to Alexandria.

Decline and Abandonment:

Thebes continued to exist as a religious center during the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, although its influence waned over time. Many of its temples and monuments fell into disrepair, and the city gradually declined in importance. Following the rise of Christianity in Egypt, Thebes lost its status as a pagan religious center, and many of its temples were closed or repurposed.


Despite its decline, Thebes left a lasting legacy in Egyptian history. Its temples, tombs, and monuments are among the most impressive in the world, including the Karnak and Luxor temple complexes, the Valley of the Kings, and the Valley of the Queens. Thebes remains an important archaeological site, attracting visitors from around the world who come to marvel at its ancient wonders and learn about its rich history.


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