Alexander's Campaign > Alexander's Indian Campaign

Alexander's Indian Campaign

Alexander the Great - Dove Decoration


Indian Campaign

Part of the Campaign of Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great - Ptolemy Tabula Asiae X India Intra Gangem (1467)

Ptolemy Tabula Asiae X (1467)

Dates: 327–325 BC

Location: Indus Valley

Coordinates: 38,0955830, 67,1841870

Aftermath: Macedonia conquers the Indus Valley, but fails to advance into the Ganges Plain.

Next Battle: Cophen Campaign

Previous Battle: Siege of Sogdian Rock

Alexander the Great's campaign in India was a significant part of his broader conquests across Asia. Here is an overview of this campaign:


Campaign Details

  1. Entry into India:

    • Khyber Pass: Alexander entered the Indian subcontinent through the Khyber Pass, a critical strategic point in the Hindu Kush mountains.
    • First Battles: He faced resistance from various local tribes, most notably the Aspasioi and Assakenoi tribes in the region of present-day Pakistan. Alexander's forces managed to subdue these tribes after a series of fierce battles.
  2. Battle of the Hydaspes (326 BCE):

    • Opponent: King Porus (Purushottama), who ruled the region between the Jhelum and Chenab rivers.
    • Location: The battle took place near the River Hydaspes (modern-day Jhelum River).
    • Outcome: Despite Porus’s strong defense and the use of war elephants, Alexander achieved a decisive victory. Impressed by Porus’s valor, Alexander reinstated him as a satrap (governor) of his own territory and even granted him additional lands.
  3. Further Advance and Difficulties:

    • Continued Eastward March: Alexander continued his march eastward, encountering several small kingdoms and tribes, some of which surrendered while others resisted.
    • Challenges: The monsoon season, the unfamiliar terrain, and the weariness of his troops presented significant challenges. Additionally, his soldiers were increasingly reluctant to continue marching further into unknown territories.
  4. Mutiny at the Hyphasis River:

    • Soldier's Refusal: At the Hyphasis River (modern-day Beas River), Alexander’s troops refused to march further east. They were exhausted and demoralized by the continuous campaigning.
    • Decision to Return: Facing a potential mutiny, Alexander decided to turn back. He constructed twelve giant altars to mark the easternmost extent of his conquest and to symbolize his achievements.
  5. Return Journey:

    • Route: Alexander took a southern route along the Indus River, securing the region through several battles and establishing numerous cities.
    • Nearchus’s Fleet: He sent a part of his army and fleet under the command of Nearchus to explore the coast and make their way back to Persia by sea.



Alexander the Great’s campaign in India, although brief, was marked by significant battles and strategic achievements. His encounter with Indian rulers and his decision to halt further eastward expansion were pivotal moments in his conquests. This campaign is often seen as a blend of military prowess and strategic diplomacy, with long-lasting impacts on the regions involved.

Indian Campaign Overview

Here is a comprehensive table of the additional battles from Alexander the Great's campaign, including details on location, outcome, victor, loser, and territorial changes. These battles were critical in establishing and maintaining Alexander's control over the regions he conquered, showcasing his military strategy and the effective execution of his campaigns.

BattleLatitudeLongitudeOutcomeYearLocationDescriptionVictorLoserTerritorial Changes
Battle of the Cophen34.013871.5820Macedonian victory327 BCENear modern-day Kabul, AfghanistanAlexander's campaign in the Cophen Valley, securing the region against local tribes.MacedonLocal tribesSecured route to the Indus Valley
Siege of Aornos34.700072.8000Macedonian victory326 BCENear modern-day Swat, PakistanAlexander captured the fortress of Aornos, considered impregnable.MacedonLocal tribesSecured Alexander's route into India
Battle of the Hydaspes32.900073.7333Macedonian victory326 BCENear modern-day Jhelum, PakistanAlexander defeated King Porus in a key battle on the banks of the Hydaspes River.MacedonPaurava KingdomControl over parts of the Punjab region
Mallian Campaign29.473573.8459Macedonian victory326 BCENear modern-day Multan, PakistanAlexander's campaign against the Mallian tribes; Alexander was seriously wounded.MacedonMallian tribesEstablishing control over the Punjab region

Detailed Descriptions

  1. Battle of the Cophen (327 BCE):

    • Description: This battle was part of Alexander's campaign in the Cophen (Kunar) Valley, where he aimed to secure the region against various local tribes who resisted his advance into India.
    • Outcome: Macedonian victory, resulting in the securing of the valley and ensuring a clear route for further campaigns in the Indus Valley.
  2. Siege of Aornos (326 BCE):

    • Description: Alexander besieged and captured the rock fortress of Aornos, which was considered impregnable. The capture was a significant psychological victory, demonstrating Alexander's military prowess.
    • Outcome: Macedonian victory, leading to the elimination of a strategic obstacle on the route to India and securing his rear as he advanced further.
  3. Battle of the Hydaspes (326 BCE):

    • Description: Alexander faced King Porus on the banks of the Hydaspes River. The battle was marked by Alexander's tactical ingenuity, including the use of deceptive river crossings.
    • Outcome: Decisive Macedonian victory, resulting in the capture of Porus, who was subsequently reinstated as a regional ruler under Alexander's suzerainty. This battle extended Alexander's control into the Punjab region.
  4. Mallian Campaign (326 BCE):

    • Description: Alexander's campaign against the Mallian tribes was a series of battles and sieges aimed at subduing the tribes in the Punjab region. Alexander was severely wounded during the siege of one of the Mallian strongholds.
    • Outcome: Macedonian victory, with the subjugation of the Mallian tribes and the consolidation of control over the Punjab region. This campaign demonstrated Alexander's resilience and determination, despite the personal risks involved.


Warfare Links

Sabalico Logo
Sabalytics Logo
World Map Logo
rStatistics Logo
Time Zone Logo
Galaxy View Logo
Periodic Table Logo
My Location Logo
Weather Track Logo
Sprite Sheet Logo
Barcode Generator Logo
Test Speed Logo
Website Tools Logo
Image Tools Logo
Color Tools Logo
Text Tools Logo
Finance Tools Logo
File Tools Logo
Data Tools Logo
History of Humanity - History Archive Logo
History of Humanity - History Mysteries Logo
History of Humanity - Ancient Mesopotamia Logo
History of Humanity - Egypt History Logo
History of Humanity - Persian Empire Logo
History of Humanity - Greek History Logo
History of Humanity - Alexander the Great Logo
History of Humanity - Roman History Logo
History of Humanity - Punic Wars Logo
History of Humanity - Golden Age of Piracy Logo
History of Humanity - Revolutionary War Logo