Alexander's Campaign > Alexander's Balkan Campaign
Alexander's Balkan Campaign
Part of the Campaign of Alexander the Great
Alexander's Balkan Campaign - Historical Atlas (1923)
Dates: 335 BC
Aftermath: Macedonia restores control of the Balkans
Next Battle: Battle of Mount Haemus
Previous Battle: N/A
The Balkan campaign of Alexander the Great occurred during 335 BC against the vassal states of Macedonia. Each rebellious Greek state would be subsequently subdued by Alexander thus freeing up his position to begin his planned invasion of Persia. The Balkan campaign began following the assassination of Philip II of Macedon by the captain of his guard named Pausanias in 336 BC. Following this Alexander III of Macedon was crowned king of Macedon and became leader of the military.
However, news of Philip II's death led many city-states to believe they could throw off the Macedonian yolk and thus began asserting their independence against the new king. These states included Thebes, Athens, Thessaly as well as some Thracian tribes to the north of Macedon itself. Alexander though, would have none of it.
He gathered his army of 3,000 cavalry and rode south towards Thessaly first. Here he found the Thessalian army blocking the route between Mount Olympus and Mount Ossa. This first attack against the Thessalian army would characterize Alexander's ingenuity and innovativeness for years to come. He ordered his soldiers to ride through while the enemy was sleeping and when they awoke they suddenly found the Macedonians at their rear. After seeing the Macedonian cavalry behind them the Thessalians surrendered and decided to join Alexander's cavalry force as he continued to ride south towards the Peloponnese.
Following this initial victory Alexander and company rode south to Thermopylae where he was recognized as leader of the Sacred League. From here he headed south towards Corinth. At Corinth he sued for peace and pardoned anyone involved with the rebellion. Upon this victory he was proclaimed Hegemon of the Greek forces to command against the Persian Empire. However, while down in Corinth he received word that the Thracian tribes in the north began rebelling as well.
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Prior to crossing into Asia Minor, Alexander wanted to reinforce his northern borders and advanced initially into Thrace in the spring of 335 BC. The rebellion was led by the Illyrians and the Triballi that were vassals of the Macedonians prior to this.
See Siege of Pelium
The Siege of Pelium was a siege engaged by Alexander the Great to conquer the Illyrian tribes of modern day Albania. It was necessary for Alexander to capture this point as it provided easy access to both Illyria and Macedonia and he needed to move quickly to quash the Greece rebellion brewing in Athens and Thebes. The success of this siege would foreshadow much of the later success Alexander would have in his subsequent campaigns. After taking the city of Pelium the Macedonians would march south to quickly bring the rest of the Greek city-states within their control.
See Battle of Thebes
The Battle of Thebes was a major battle of the Balkan campaign that occurred in 335 BC between the Macedonian army and the city-state of Thebes. After being made Hegemon of the League of Corinth the Macedonian army under Alexander marched north to handle rebellions in Illyria and Thrace. Alexander never had intentions to destroy the city of Thebes however, after several emissaries failed to deliver successful terms the Macedonian army eventually destroyed the entire city.
See Persian Campaign
Following the destruction of Thebes the Macedonian vassal territories were once once again under the dominion of Macedon and thus Alexander. After conquering Greece and the rest of the tribes and territories he was free to undertake his planned Persian campaign which had been planned previously by his father.
+ Balkan Battles
+ Persian Battles
- Battle of the Granicus (334 BC)
- Siege of Miletus (334 BC)
- Siege of Halicarnassus (334 BC)
- Battle of Issus (333 BC)
- Siege of Tyre (332 BC)
- Siege of Gaza (332 BC)
- Battle of Guagamela (331 BC)
- Battle of the Uxian Defile (331 BC)
- Battle of the Persian Gate (330 BC)
- Siege of Cyropolis (329 BC)
- Battle of Jaxartes (329 BC)
- Battle of Gabai (328 BC)
- Siege of Sogdian Rock (327 BC)