Hellenistic Warfare > Macedonian Army

Macedonian Army

Alexander the Great - Dove Decoration


Under Alexander the Great, the Macedonian army underwent significant reforms and expansions, becoming one of the most formidable military forces of the ancient world. The Macedonian army was organized into several units, each with specific roles and functions. The core of the army was the infantry, consisting of heavily armed phalanx units known as "pezhetairoi" and "hypaspists." These soldiers fought in close formation with long spears called sarissas.

The cavalry was another crucial component of the Macedonian army. Alexander's elite cavalry, known as the Companion Cavalry or "hetairoi," served as his personal bodyguard and shock troops. They were highly trained and equipped with lances and swords. Other cavalry units included the Thessalian cavalry, which provided additional heavy cavalry support, and light cavalry units called "prodromoi" and "paeonians," which served as scouts and skirmishers. Additionally, Alexander employed various auxiliary troops, including archers, slingers, and engineers, to support the main army in different roles.


Alexander the Great revolutionized military tactics with his innovative strategies and battlefield maneuvers. The Macedonian phalanx, with its deep formations and sarissa pikes, formed the backbone of Alexander's infantry tactics. The phalanx would advance steadily, protecting itself with overlapping shields and presenting a formidable wall of spears to the enemy. Alexander's cavalry, particularly the Companion Cavalry, played a crucial role in his tactical victories. He often employed the "hammer and anvil" tactic, where his cavalry would charge and disrupt enemy formations while the infantry pinned them down, leading to decisive breakthroughs. Alexander was known for his bold and aggressive tactics, such as his famous oblique order at the Battle of Gaugamela, where he concentrated his forces on one wing to break through the enemy line.

Logistics and Supply:

Alexander paid meticulous attention to logistics and supply, ensuring that his army remained well-provisioned and able to sustain its operations during long campaigns. He established supply lines and depots along his invasion routes, allowing for the efficient resupply of troops even in remote regions. Alexander's army was supported by a sophisticated logistical network, including baggage trains, engineers, and medical personnel, which enabled it to overcome logistical challenges and maintain its mobility.

Training and Discipline:

The Macedonian army was renowned for its rigorous training and discipline. Soldiers underwent extensive physical conditioning and drill exercises to ensure readiness for battle. Alexander personally led by example and fostered a culture of camaraderie and loyalty among his troops. He often fought alongside his men on the front lines, inspiring them with his courage and leadership.


Alexander's military innovations and successes established a lasting legacy for the Macedonian army. His tactics and strategies continued to influence military thinking for centuries, shaping the development of warfare in the Hellenistic and Roman periods. The Macedonian army under Alexander's command remains one of the most celebrated and studied military forces in history, admired for its discipline, versatility, and effectiveness on the battlefield.

Macedonian Phalanx


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