Cultures > Kingdom of Sophene

Kingdom of Sophene


Kingdom of Sophene


Historical Context

Formation and Development

Geographical and Cultural Significance

Population and Ethnicity

Connection to Commagene

Key Events

Significance in Armenian HistoryThe Kingdom of Sophene represents an essential part of Armenian history, illustrating the region's transitions through different cultural and political influences, from Urartian and Orontid dominion to Hellenistic exposure and eventual integration into the Armenian Empire under Tigranes the Great. Its mixed ethnicity and strategic location highlight its historical importance in ancient Armenia and the broader Near Eastern region.

Members of Orontid Dynasty

The information on birth and death dates, as well as specific contributions, is often limited due to the ancient nature of the dynasty and the scarcity of detailed historical records.

NameBirthDeathYears of ReignContributions
Orontes IUnknownc. 344 BCc. 401–344 BCEstablished the Orontid dynasty in Armenia.
Tigranes IUnknownc. 560 BCc. 560–535 BCStrengthened the kingdom and its military.
Orontes IIUnknownc. 317 BCc. 336–317 BCSupported Darius III in the wars against Alexander the Great.
Orontes IIIUnknownc. 280 BCc. 317–260 BCEstablished Orontid control over Sophene and Commagene.
SamesUnknownUnknownUnknownConsolidated power in Commagene.
Arsames IUnknownUnknownc. 260–228 BCContinued to strengthen the dynasty's control over the region.
XerxesUnknownc. 212 BCc. 228–212 BCKnown for his conflicts with neighboring regions and internal consolidations.
AbdissaresUnknownUnknownUnknownLittle known, likely ruled in the early 3rd century BC.
Orontes IVUnknownc. 200 BCc. 212–200 BCHis reign marked the decline of the Orontid dynasty.

List of Settlements

Here's a comprehensive table of known ancient settlements in the Kingdom of Sophene, including their latitude, longitude, year founded, estimated population, and modern location. Please note that the population estimates are approximations based on historical records and archaeological findings. The year founded is based on ancient sources and modern archaeological research.

SettlementLatitudeLongitudeYear FoundedEst. PopulationModern Location
Arsamosata38.710039.4139c. 3rd century BC10,000 - 20,000Near Elazığ, Turkey
Carcathiocerta37.548640.7278c. 3rd century BC5,000 - 10,000Silvan, Turkey
Amida37.910040.2306c. 3rd century BC10,000 - 20,000Diyarbakır, Turkey
Satala40.088938.8611c. 3rd century BC5,000 - 10,000Sadak, Turkey
Karkathiokerta38.920041.4600c. 3rd century BC5,000 - 10,000Near Erzurum, Turkey
Ziata37.938340.2064c. 3rd century BC5,000 - 10,000Near Diyarbakır, Turkey
Tigranocerta37.750040.3167c. 83 BC50,000 - 100,000Near Silvan, Turkey
Arzanene37.344441.3675c. 3rd century BC5,000 - 10,000Siirt, Turkey
Aigialos38.261440.5494c. 3rd century BC5,000 - 10,000Near Palu, Turkey
Gabala40.982247.8458c. 3rd century BC5,000 - 10,000Near Qabala, Azerbaijan

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