People > Arsinoe III

Arsinoe III

Background

Arsinoe III (235-204 BCE) was the daughter of Queen Berenice II and Ptolemy III Euergetes who ruled over the Ptolemaic Kingdom based out of the former satrapy of Egypt. She later would marry her brother Ptolemy IV Philopater and become the Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom.

Powerless to arrest the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom under her debauched husband’s rule, the popular queen was eventually murdered by the royal ministers.In 217 Arsinoe accompanied her brother to Raphia in Palestine, reputedly encouraging the Egyptian troops before their victorious encounter with the army of the Middle Eastern Seleucid kingdom. Married to Ptolemy after the battle, she gave birth to the future Ptolemy V Epiphanes about 210. Thereafter she was sequestered in the palace, while Ptolemy’s depraved male and female favourites ruined both king and government. Although Arsinoe apparently disapproved of the sordid state of the court, she was unable to exert any influence. Ptolemy IV Philopator died in 205, and his ministers, fearing retribution from Arsinoe, arranged her murder about a year later. Neither the king’s nor the queen’s death was announced until the child Ptolemy had been enthroned. Arsinoe had attained some popularity, and rioting followed the news of her assassination.Arsinoe III Thea PhilopatorQueen of EgyptOktadrachmon Arsinoe III.jpgBornc. 246–245 BCDied204 BCSpousePtolemy IVIssuePtolemy V EpiphanesFull nameArsinoe III Thea PhilopatorDynastyPtolemaicFatherPtolemy IIIMotherBerenice IIArsinoe III Philopator (Ancient Greek: Ἀρσινόη ἡ Φιλοπάτωρ, which means "Arsinoe the father-loving", 246 or 245 BC – 204 BC) was Queen of Egypt (220 – 204 BC). She was a daughter of Ptolemy III and Berenice II.[1]Between late October and early November 220 BC she was married to her brother, Ptolemy IV. She took active part in the government of the country, at least in the measure that it was tolerated by the all-powerful minister Sosibius. She rode at the head of infantry and cavalry to fight Antiochus the Great at the battle of Raphia in 217 BC. She was the mother of Ptolemy V. In summer, 204 BC she was murdered in a palace coup, shortly after the death of her husband.[2] Eratosthenes wrote a manuscript called the Arsinoe, which is lost, the subject being a memoir of the queen. It is quoted by many ancient scholars.[citation needed]

Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt

KingTitleMeaningReignWife/Co-RulerReign
Ptolemy ISoterSavior305-285 BCEBerenice IReign
Ptolemy IIPhiladelphusSister-loving285-246 BCEArsinoe IReign
Ptolemy IIIEuergetes IThe Benefactor246-221 BCEBerenice IIReign
Ptolemy IVPhilopaterFather-loving221-204 BCEArsinoe IIIReign
Ptolemy VEpiphanesThe Illustrious204-180 BCEReign
Ptolemy VIPhilometorMother-loving180-145 BCECleopatra I
Cleopatra II & Ptolemy VIII
Ptolemy Eupator
180–176 BCE
170–163 BCE
153–150 BCE
Ptolemy VIINeos PhilopatorFather-loving145 BCECleopatra IIReign
Ptolemy VIIIEuergetes IIThe Benefactor170–116 BCECleopatra II145–131/130 BCE
Cleopatra II124–116 BCE
Ptolemy VIIIEuergetes IIThe Benefactor170–116 BCECleopatra II124–116 BCE
Ptolemy IXSoter IIThe Savior116-107 BCECleopatra III107–101 BCE
Ptolemy XAlexander I107-88 BCECleopatra III107–101 BCE
Ptolemy IXSoter IIThe Savior88-80 BCE
Ptolemy XIAlexander II80 BCEBerenice III80 BCE
Ptolemy XIIINeos Dionysos/AuletesNew Dionysus/Flute Player80–51 BCEBerenice IV58–55 BCE
Cleopatra VII51-30 BCEReign
Ptolemy XIII PhysconDionysos51-47 BCEReign
Ptolemy XIVPhilopatorFather-loving47-44 BCEReign
Ptolemy XVCaesarionLittle Caesar44-30 BCEReign

Sources

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

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