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Antigonus II Gonatas

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Background

ANTIGONUS GONATAS (c. 319–239 B.C.), Macedonian king, was the son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, and grandson of Antigonus Cyclops. On the death of his father (283), he assumed the title of king of Macedonia, but did not obtain possession of the throne till 276, after it had been successively in the hands of Pyrrhus, Lysimachus, Seleucus, and Ptolemy Ceraunus. Antigonus repelled the invasion of the Gauls, and continued in undisputed possession of Macedonia till 274, when Pyrrhus returned from Italy, and (in 273) made himself master of nearly all the country. On the advance of Pyrrhus into Peloponnesus, he recovered his dominions. He was again (between 263 and 255) driven out of his kingdom by Alexander, the son of Pyrrhus, and again recovered it.

The latter part of his reign was comparatively peaceful, and he gained the affection of his subjects by his honesty and his cultivation of the arts. He gathered round him distinguished literary men—philosophers, poets, and historians. He died in the eightieth year of his age, and the forty-fourth of his reign. His surname was usually derived by later Greek writers from the name of his supposed birthplace, Gonni (Gonnus) in Thessaly; some take it to be a Macedonian word signifying an iron plate for protecting the knee; neither conjecture is a happy one, and in our ignorance of the Macedonian language it must remain unexplained.

Macedon King List

Macedon King List

KingGreekReignDynasty
Caranus (Karanos)Κάρανος808–778 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Coenus (Koinos)Κοινός778–750 BCEArgaed Dynasty
TyrimmasΤυρίμμας750-700 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Perdiccas IΠερδίκκας Αʹ700–678 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Argaeus IἈργαῖος Αʹ678–640 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Philip I of MacedonΦίλιππος Αʹ640–602 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Aeropus IἈέροπος Αʹ602–576 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Alcetas IἈλκέτας Αʹ576–547 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Amyntas IἈμύντας Αʹ547–498 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Alexander IἈλέξανδρος Αʹ498–454 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Alcetas IIἈλκέτας Βʹ454–448 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Perdiccas IIΠερδίκκας Βʹ448–413 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Archelausρχέλαος Αʹ413–399 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Orestes & Aeropus IIὈρέστης & Ἀέροπος Βʹ399–396 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Archelaus IIἈρχέλαος Βʹ396–393 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Amyntas IIἈμύντας Βʹ393 BCEArgaed Dynasty
PausaniasΠαυσανίας393 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Amyntas IIIἈμύντας Γʹ393 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Argaeus IIἈργαῖος Βʹ393–392 BCArgaed Dynasty
Amyntas IIIἈμύντας Γʹ393 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Amyntas IIIἈμύντας Γʹ392–370 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Alexander IIἈλέξανδρος Βʹ370–368 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Perdiccas IIIΠερδίκκας Γʹ368–359 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Ptolemy of Aloros (Regent)Πτολεμαῖος Αʹ368–365 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Amyntas IVἈμύντας Δʹ359–356 BCEArgaed Dynasty of Macedon">Argaed Dynasty
Philip IIΦίλιππος Βʹ359–336 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Alexander III the GreatἈλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας336–323 BCEArgaed Dynasty
AntipaterἈντίπατρος334–323 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Philip III Arrhidaeus & Alexander IVΦίλιππος Γʹ & Ἀλέξανδρος Δʹ323–310 BCEArgaed Dynasty
PerdiccasΠερδίκκας,323–321 BCEArgaed Dynasty
AntipaterἈντίπατρος,321–319 BCEArgaed Dynasty
PolyperchonΠολυπέρχων,319–317 BCEArgaed Dynasty
CassanderΚάσανδρος,317–305 BCEArgaed Dynasty
CassanderΚάσανδρος,305–297 BCEAntipatrid Dynasty
Philip IVΦίλιππος Δʹ297 BCEAntipatrid Dynasty
Alexander V & Antipater IIΑντίπατρος Β'297–294 BCEAntipatrid Dynasty
Demetrius I PoliorcetesΔημήτριος ο Πολιορκητής306–286 BCEAntigonid Dynasty
Lysimachus & Pyrrhus of EpirusΛυσίμαχος & Πύρρος της Ηπείρου286–281 BCE & 286–285 BCENon-Dynastic Kings
Ptolemy KeraunosΠτολεμαίος Κεραυνός281–279 BCENon-Dynastic Kings
MeleagerΜελέαγρος279 BCENon-Dynastic Kings
Antipater EtesiasἈντίπατρος Ετησίας279 BCEAntipatrid Dynasty
SosthenesΣωσθένης279–276 BCEAntipatrid Dynasty
Antigonus II GonatasΑντίγονος Β' Γονατάς276–274 BCEAntigonid Dynasty
Pyrrhus of EpirusΠύρρος της Ηπείρου274–272 BCENon-Dynastic Kings
Antigonus II GonatasΑντίγονος Β' Γονατάς272–239 BCENon-Dynastic Kings
Demetrius II AetolicusΔημήτριος Β' Αιτωλικός239–229 BCEAntigonid Dynasty
Antigonus III DosonΑντίγονος Γ'229–221 BCEAntigonid Dynasty
Philip VΦίλιππος Ε'221–179 BCEAntigonid Dynasty
PerseusΠερσέας179–167 BCEAntigonid Dynasty
AndriscusἈνδρίσκος150-148 BCENon-Dynastic Kings

Sources

Plutarch, Demetrius, Pyrrhus, Aratus; Justin xxiv. 1; xxv. 1-3; Polybius ii. 43-45, ix. 29, 34. See Thirlwall, History of Greece, vol viii. (1847); Holm, Griech. Gesch. vol. iv. (1894); Niese, Gesch. d. griech. u. maked. Staaten, vols. i. and ii. (1893, 1899); Beloch, Griech. Gesch. vol. iii. (1904); also Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Antigonos von Karystos (1881).

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 2

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