Chronology > Persian Campaign Chronology

Persian Campaign Chronology

Alexander the Great - Dove Decoration

Background

This page represents the complete chronology of the Persian Campaign launched by Alexander the Great against the Achaemenid Empire led by Darius III. It describes each event and the year along with possible notes and comments.

334 BC

DateEventSource
April, 334 BCDeparture from AmphipolisGreece
May, 334 BCTroyAsia Minor
May, 334 BCBattle of the GranicusHellespontine Phrygia
June, 334 BCSardis (Sardes)Lydia
June, 334 BCEphesusIonia
July, 334 BCSiege of MiletusIonia
September, 334 BCSiege of HalicarnassusCaria
June, 334 BCXanthosLycia
December, 334 BCPhaselisPamphylia
?TermessosPamphylia

333 BC

DateEventSource
January, 333 BCPergePamphylia
?AspendosPamphylia
?SidePamphylia
?KelainaiPisidia
April, 333 BCGordium (Gordion)Great Phrygia
?AnkyraCappadocia
?Cilician GatesCilicia
September, 333 BCCydnos RiverCilicia
September, 333 BCTarsusCilicia
October, 333 BCSoliCilicia
November, 333 BCBattle of IssusCilicia
November, 333 BCAlexandria ad IssumCilicia
December, 333 BCAradus Island (3km off the coast of Tartus)Phoenicia

332 BC

DateEventSource
January, 332 BCByblosPhoenicia
January, 332 BCSidonPhoenicia
January, 332 BCSiege of TyrePhoenicia
?DamascusCoele-Syria
August, 332 BCJerusalemCoele-Syria
September, 332 BCSiege of GazaPalestine
December, 332 BCPelusiumEgypt

331 BC

DateEventSource
January, 331 BCMemphisEgypt
January, 331 BCAlexandria in EgyptEgypt
February, 331 BCSiwa OasisEgypt
May, 331 BCTyrePhoenicia
?DamascusCoele-Syria
?AleppoCoele-Syria
July, 331 BCThapsacusMesopotamia
July, 331 BCHarranMesopotamia
July, 331 BCEdessa or UrhaiMesopotamia
July, 331 BCTigris RiverMesopotamia
October, 331 BCBattle of GaugamelaMesopotamia
October, 331 BCArbelaMesopotamia (Assyria)
October, 331 BCBabylonBabylonia
December, 331 BCSusaSusiana
?Battle of the Persian GatePersis (Persia Proper)

330 BC

DateEventSource
January, 330 BCPersepolisPersis (Persia Proper)
?PasargadPersis (Persia Proper)
June, 330 BCDeh Bid Pass (Zagros Range)Persis (Persia Proper)/Media
June, 330 BCEcbatanaMedia
June, 330 BCRhagaeMedia
June, 330 BCCaspian GatesMedia/Parthia Border
July, 330 BCAlexander's detour from modern Semnan to the Dasht-e-Kavir desertParthia
July, 330 BCThara - Darius III is killed.Parthia
July, 330 BCHecatompylosParthia
July, 330 BCZadracartaHyrcania
August, 330 BCHyrcanian CampaignHyrcania
September, 330 BCSusiaParthia
?Nisa-AlexandroupolisParthia
September, 330 BCArtacoana, Alexandria in AriaAria (Ariana)
October, 330 BCPhrada, Alexandria ProphthasiaDrangiana
December, 330 BCAlexandria in ArachosiaArachosia

329 BC

DateEventSource
Winter, 329 BCAlexandria in ArachosiaArachosia
April, 329 BCOrtospana, KaburaGandhara
April, 329 BCCophen RiverGandhara
April, 329 BCKapisa, Alexandria on the CaucasusGandhara
May, 329 BCParopamisusGandhara
May, 329 BCKhawak PassGandhara
May, 329 BCDrapsacaBactria
May, 329 BCBactraBactria
May, 329 BCOxus River
May, 329 BCAlexandria TarmitaSogdia (Sogdiana)
June, 329 BCNautacaSogdia (Sogdiana)
June, 329 BCMaracandaSogdia (Sogdiana)
July, 329 BCJaxartes RiverSogdia (Sogdiana)
July, 329 BCFergana Valley with 7 Achaemenid cities-fortresses, among which Cyropolis or Cyreschata/Kurushkatha Siege of CyropolisSogdia (Sogdiana)
July, 329 BCEstablishment of Alexandria EschateSogdia (Sogdiana)
October, 329 BCBattle of JaxartesSogdians and Scythians Massagetes (Spitamenes' revolt) (north of Jaxartes River)Sogdia (Sogdiana)
November, 329 BCMaracandaSogdia (Sogdiana)
November, 329 BCTribactraSogdia (Sogdiana)
November, 329 BCBactraBactria

328 BC

DateEventSource
Spring, 328 BCEstablishment of Alexandria Oxiane/on the OxusBactria
Spring, 328 BCEstablishment of Alexandria in MargianaMargiana
Summer/Autumn, 328 BCSiege of Sogdian RockSogdia (Sogdiana)
December, 328 BCNautacaSogdia (Sogdiana)

327 BC

Indian Campaign Chronology

Bibliography

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

Arrian, John Rooke; Arrian's History of the expedition of Alexander the Great: and conquest of Persia. J. Davis, 1813.

Nigel Cawthorne; Alexander the Great. Haus Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-904341-56-X.

Waldemar Heckel; The wars of Alexander the Great, 336-323 B.C. Taylor & Francis, 2003, ISBN 0-415-96855-0.

Arrian, James S. Romm, Pamela Mensch; Alexander the Great: selections from Arrian, Diodorus, Plutarch, and Quintus Curtius. Hackett Publishing, 2005, ISBN 0-87220-727-7.

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