Wars of the Diadochi > Syrian Wars > Battle of Panium

Battle of Panium

Alexander the Great - Dove Decoration


The Battle of Panium, also known as Paneion (Πάνειον, or Paneas, Πανειάς) was a battle fought near Paneas between the Seleucid Empire and the Ptolemaic Kingdom in 200 BCE as part of the Syrian Wars. The Seleucids were led by Antiochus III the Great and the Ptolemies were led by Scopas of Aetolia. Not much is known about the details of the actual conflict but what is known is that the Seleucids used a cataphract or armored cavalry led by Antiochus the Younger to successful defeat the Ptolemaic Army.

The cataphracts attacked the Ptolemaic cavalry on the blanks and routed them. This left the backs of the Ptolemaic infantry exposed to the rear which the Seleucids exploited and attack. This eventually caused the Ptolemaic army to retreat and resulted in a rout. The loss of the Battle of Panium would result in the end of Ptolemaic control over the Levant. According to some biblical scholars this event is mentioned in Daniel 11:15 which says "Then the king of the North will come and build up siege ramps and will capture a fortified city."

Syrian Wars Battles


Primary Sources

Secondary Sources


Jordan, James B. (2007). The Handwriting on the Wall: A Commentary on the Book of Daniel. American Vision. p. 558.

Translation of Zeno's Account of the Battle of Panium

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