People > Antigonus III Doson

Antigonus III Doson

Background

AntigonusAntigonus Doson.jpgCoin of Antigonus III Doson.King of MacedoniaReign229 - 221 BCPredecessorDemetrius II AetolicusSuccessorPhilip VBorn263 BCDied221 BCDynastyAntigonid dynastyFatherDemetrius the FairMotherOlympiasAntigonus III Doson (Greek: Ἀντίγονος Γ΄ Δώσων, 263–221 BC) was king of Macedon from 229 BC to 221 BC. He was a member of the Antigonid dynasty.Contents [hide]1Family background2Regent of Macedonia3King of Macedonia4Ancestry5References6External linksFamily background[edit]Antigonus III Doson was a half-cousin of his predecessor, Demetrius II Aetolicus. Doson's father was Demetrius the Fair (briefly king of Cyrene), the son of Demetrius Poliorcetes and his third wife, Ptolemaïs, daughter of Ptolemy I Soter and Eurydice, daughter of Antipater.[1] As such, Demetrius the Fair was, on his father's side, a younger half-brother of Demetrius II's father, Antigonus II Gonatas, the son of Poliorcetes by his first wife, Phila, another of Antipater's daughters; as well as a nephew of both Ptolemy Keraunos and Meleager on his mother's side. According to Eusebius, Doson's own mother was a Thessalian noblewoman, Olympias, daughter of Pauliclitus of Larissa.[2] Antigonus also had a brother named Echecrates,[3] whose son, named Antigonus after Doson himself, was put to death by Perseus on the latter's accession to the throne of Macedon.[4]Doson's father, Demetrius the Fair, died sometime around 250 BC, as a result of events that occurred after being summoned from Macedonia to Cyrene to marry Berenice II, the daughter and heir of Magas of Cyrene. Rather than contenting himself with his young bride, Demetrius openly became the lover of her powerful mother, Apama II. So the jealous bride took her revenge by having him assassinated.[5] It is unclear whether Doson's mother had died before this time.The meaning of Antigonus' by-name is uncertain. According to Plutarch it "implied that he was given to promising but did not perform his engagements",[6] though even the exact meaning of this is unclear.Regent of Macedonia[edit]When Demetrius II died in battle in 229 BC, his son and would-be successor, the later Philip V, was only nine years old. According to Plutarch, both the Macedonian army and nobility thought the political situation too volatile to wait for Philip V to mature enough to assume command.[7] As a consequence, the Macedonian nobility turned to Doson, who was subsequently made regent of the kingdom and married to his predecessor's widow and the mother of Philip,[8] Chryseis.[9] However, it was only after Doson demonstrated his leadership abilities by succeeding (where his cousin Demetrius had failed) in defeating the Dardanii invaders and also in putting down a rebellion by the Thessalians,[10] and showing his rule to be generally moderate and good, that he given the title of king.[11] Unlike his Antigonid ancestors, he had no viable rivals to challenge his right to rule. Yet, even as king he apparently envisioned himself as caretaker for his cousin's son, Philip V.King of Macedonia[edit]As king, Antigonus III proved to be as much a master of tactical diplomacy as of military strategy. In less than a decade of rule he not only secured the borders of his nation, he also reestablished Macedon as the dominant power in the region. Unlike previous Macedonian rulers who attempted direct dominion over their fiercely independent neighbors to the West and South, he formed alliances with Epirus and the Achaean League. When Sparta, under Cleomenes III, attempted to establish hegemony over the whole Peloponnese, Aratus of Sicyon - long the leader of Greek opposition to Macedonian domination - invited Antigonus to intervene (226 BC). Establishing his base on the heights above Corinth, Antigonus reconstituted a broad-based Hellenic league (224 BC) under his leadership before launching his attack on Sparta. The Spartan forces, outmatched by the larger, better equipped Macedonian army, were so overwhelmed in the battle of Sellasia (222 BC) that Cleomenes only managed to escape with a few horsemen, and ultimately had to seek refuge in Egypt.[12] However, in a magnanimous gesture, Antigonus restrained his soldiers from plundering Sparta, saying it was Cleomenes, not Sparta, that was his enemy.[13]Antigonus did not long survive this victory. For, while his forces were campaigning in the southern Peloponnese, Illyrians invaded Macedonia from the north. Antigonus had to rush north to repel this new threat. On his way, Antigonus passed through Tegea and Argos, his arrival at the latter coinciding with the beginning of the Nemean Games, where he was honoured by the Achaean League and various other cities.[14] His death occurred soon after, when he returned to Macedon and engaged the Illyian army; for though Macedonian forces were once again victorious, the commander became sick during the battle (possibly though not necessarily as a result of a ruptured blood vessel) and died.[15]Ancestry[edit][show]Ancestors of Antigonus III DosonReferences[edit]Jump up ^ Plutarch, Life of Demetrius, 46.3, 53.4Jump up ^ Eusebius, Chronicle, 243Jump up ^ Livy xl. 54Jump up ^ Livy xl. 58Jump up ^ Dodson, Aidan & Hilton, Dyan, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt (2010), p. 279Jump up ^ Plutarch, Life of Aemilius Paullus 8.3Jump up ^ Plutarch, Life of Aemilius Paullus 8.3Jump up ^ Plutarch, Life of Aemilius Paullus 8.3Jump up ^ Eusebius, Chronicle 1.237-8; also Syncellus Chronicle 535.19Jump up ^ Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus 28.3Jump up ^ Plutarch, Life of Aemilius Paullus 8.3Jump up ^ Polybius, Histories 2.69.10Jump up ^ Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus 28.4Jump up ^ Polybius, Histories 2.70.4Jump up ^ Polybius, Histories 2.70.6External links[edit]Antigonus III Doson entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. SmithPreceded by:Demetrius IIKings of Macedon229–221 BCSucceeded by:Philip V

Macedon King List

Macedon King List

KingGreekReignDynasty
Caranus (Karanos)Κάρανος808–778 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Coenus (Koinos)Κοινός778–750 BCEArgaed Dynasty
TyrimmasΤυρίμμας750-700 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Perdiccas IΠερδίκκας Αʹ700–678 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Argaeus IἈργαῖος Αʹ678–640 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Philip I of MacedonΦίλιππος Αʹ640–602 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Aeropus IἈέροπος Αʹ602–576 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Alcetas IἈλκέτας Αʹ576–547 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Amyntas IἈμύντας Αʹ547–498 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Alexander IἈλέξανδρος Αʹ498–454 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Alcetas IIἈλκέτας Βʹ454–448 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Perdiccas IIΠερδίκκας Βʹ448–413 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Archelausρχέλαος Αʹ413–399 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Orestes & Aeropus IIὈρέστης & Ἀέροπος Βʹ399–396 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Archelaus IIἈρχέλαος Βʹ396–393 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Amyntas IIἈμύντας Βʹ393 BCEArgaed Dynasty
PausaniasΠαυσανίας393 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Amyntas IIIἈμύντας Γʹ393 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Argaeus IIἈργαῖος Βʹ393–392 BCArgaed Dynasty
Amyntas IIIἈμύντας Γʹ393 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Amyntas IIIἈμύντας Γʹ392–370 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Alexander IIἈλέξανδρος Βʹ370–368 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Perdiccas IIIΠερδίκκας Γʹ368–359 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Ptolemy of Aloros (Regent)Πτολεμαῖος Αʹ368–365 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Amyntas IVἈμύντας Δʹ359–356 BCEArgaed Dynasty of Macedon">Argaed Dynasty
Philip IIΦίλιππος Βʹ359–336 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Alexander III the GreatἈλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας336–323 BCEArgaed Dynasty
AntipaterἈντίπατρος334–323 BCEArgaed Dynasty
Philip III Arrhidaeus & Alexander IVΦίλιππος Γʹ & Ἀλέξανδρος Δʹ323–310 BCEArgaed Dynasty
PerdiccasΠερδίκκας,323–321 BCEArgaed Dynasty
AntipaterἈντίπατρος,321–319 BCEArgaed Dynasty
PolyperchonΠολυπέρχων,319–317 BCEArgaed Dynasty
CassanderΚάσανδρος,317–305 BCEArgaed Dynasty
CassanderΚάσανδρος,305–297 BCEAntipatrid Dynasty
Philip IVΦίλιππος Δʹ297 BCEAntipatrid Dynasty
Alexander V & Antipater IIΑντίπατρος Β'297–294 BCEAntipatrid Dynasty
Demetrius I PoliorcetesΔημήτριος ο Πολιορκητής306–286 BCEAntigonid Dynasty
Lysimachus & Pyrrhus of EpirusΛυσίμαχος & Πύρρος της Ηπείρου286–281 BCE & 286–285 BCENon-Dynastic Kings
Ptolemy KeraunosΠτολεμαίος Κεραυνός281–279 BCENon-Dynastic Kings
MeleagerΜελέαγρος279 BCENon-Dynastic Kings
Antipater EtesiasἈντίπατρος Ετησίας279 BCEAntipatrid Dynasty
SosthenesΣωσθένης279–276 BCEAntipatrid Dynasty
Antigonus II GonatasΑντίγονος Β' Γονατάς276–274 BCEAntigonid Dynasty
Pyrrhus of EpirusΠύρρος της Ηπείρου274–272 BCENon-Dynastic Kings
Antigonus II GonatasΑντίγονος Β' Γονατάς272–239 BCENon-Dynastic Kings
Demetrius II AetolicusΔημήτριος Β' Αιτωλικός239–229 BCEAntigonid Dynasty
Antigonus III DosonΑντίγονος Γ'229–221 BCEAntigonid Dynasty
Philip VΦίλιππος Ε'221–179 BCEAntigonid Dynasty
PerseusΠερσέας179–167 BCEAntigonid Dynasty
AndriscusἈνδρίσκος150-148 BCENon-Dynastic Kings

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